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Regional Bordeaux AOCs

In the Bordeaux wine region there is a number of Regional Appellations d'origine contrôlées (AOCs) that may be used throughout the region. These are Bordeaux AOC, Bordeaux Supérieur, Bordeaux Clairet, Bordeaux Rosé, Bordeaux Sec and Bordeaux Moelleux.

French Wine Classification System

                  The French Classification System

The organization of the French wine industry is based on a system of classifications, which guarantee the origin of a wine from a demarcated area. Its specific purpose is to guarantee authenticity however it is now thought to protect the producer more than the consumer. The system was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture in the 1930’s after pressure from producers of high quality wine who were concerned with the over-production of low quality wine during this period. This pressure resulted in the establishment of the Institute National des Appellations d’Origine des Vins et Eaux de Vie (INAO). The INAO consists of twelve regional committees: Alsace and Eastern France, Champagne, Southwest, Loire Valley, Burgundy, Languedoc-Roussillon, Rhône Valley, Provence-Corsica, Vins Doux Naturels, Cognac, Armagnac and Eaux-de-Vie de Cidre. 

French wines are placed into four main categories; Vin de Table, Vin de Pays (VDP), Vin Dèlimitè de Qualitè Supèrieure (VDQS) and Appellation d’Origine Controlée (AOC). In the three quality wine categories (VDP, VDQS and AOC), the wines are tasted and analysed before any classification is granted.

In general the laws of a Vin de Pays region are more flexible than for AOC and VDQS. The great success of VDP, especially Vin de Pays d’Oc, has been in producing and marketing varietal wines (i.e. Chardonnay, Viognier, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah). These wines compete with those from the New World and provide consumers with an easily recognisable style. This competition with New World wines has led to the demystification of labeling and an increase in promotion and advertising. Vin de Pays is certainly the area to watch in the battle to dominate varietal wines. The marketing-driven approach of VDP wines is in marked contrast to the traditionally apathetic approach of most French AOCs. The need for quality is also key in order to compete and this is reflected in the prices many VDP wines achieve on the market. Many are achieving higher prices than AOC wines (traditionally the highest quality French wines), as a consequence of this quality and consumer appeal. 

In general, the laws of any AOC control the following: the area entitled to the name; permitted grape varieties; density of vine plants; minimum alcohol levels; and yields. Within many regions there can be a hierarchy of appellations. The AOC classification is however no longer a guarantee of quality. The AOC laws have come under increased criticism as being outdated and anti-competitive, providing only a collective marketing facade under which some mediocre wine producers can shelter. The limitations imposed by the system have meant that some producers choose specifically not to classify their product as AOC in order to retain maximum flexibility in their viticultural and winemaking techniques and in order to compete with wines from the New World.

The laws of VDQS mirror those of the AOC. Regions are granted VDQS status with the expectation that they will later be promoted to AOC.

Italian wine; DOC, VdT, DOCG: What does it mean?

DOC, VdT, DOCG: What does it mean?

Reading an Italian label is usually straight forward: there's the winery name, perhaps the vineyard that the grapes came from, the year, and an abbreviation (DOC, DOCG) or a phrase (Vino Da Tavola). Have you ever wondered what a DOC wine is, and how it differs from a Vino da Tavola?

How is vodka made?

Vodka is an alcoholic beverage distilled at a high proof from a fermented vegetable or grain mash. Proof is a measurement of the alcohol content. Each degree of proof equals a half percent of alcohol. Thus, 100 proof is that which contains 50% alcohol, 90 proof contains 45%, and so on. Because distilled vodka can have a proof as high as 145, all taste and odor has been eliminated, making vodka a neutral spirit. Water is added to bring the proof down to a range between 80 and 100.

Read More About Georgian Fortified Wines




Kardanakhi is a fortified vintage white wine of the type. It is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district. The wine matures in oak barrels for three years. The amber color wine has a pleasant specific bouquet with a typical port wine flavor and a fine honey fragrance. It contains 18% alcohol, 10% sugar and has 4-6% titrated acidity. Kardanakhi has been manufactured since 1976. It was awarded 8 gold and one silver international medals.
Read More about Georgian White Wines



Pirosmani is a semi-sweet white wine made from a 40% Tsolikauri, 60% Tsitska blend. It has won 3 gold medals and one silver medal at international competitions.

Tsinandali is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region.

Tvishi is a natural semi-sweet white wine made from Tsolikauri in the Lechkhumi region. It has won one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal in international competitions.


Mtsvani is a dry white wine made from Mtsvani.
Read More about Georgian Red Wines



Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti. The wine of dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1958. At international exhibitions it was awarded 6 gold and 5 silver medals.
Read More About Georgian Wines


Georgian is a "Cradle of Wine" this is a well known fact. Wine has a philosophical rather than gastronomical meaning in Georgia . Wine is a way of life. One can hardly imagine any festivity in without Wine in Georgia .


When it comes to wine-making, Georgia is blessed. Extremes of weather are unusual: summers tend to be short-sleeve sunny, and winters mild and frost-free. Natural springs abound, and the Caucasian Mountain streams drain mineral-rich water into the valleys. Georgia's moderate climate and moist air, influenced by the Black Sea , provide the best conditions for vine cultivating.
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